Mastering the Basics of Bond Market Pricing
Understanding the complex world of bond market pricing can seem daunting, but it doesn't have to be. With the right approach and a solid grasp of the fundamentals, navigating this intricate financial landscape becomes both manageable and interesting. In this comprehensive guide, we delve into the core concepts that underpin bond pricing, explain various types of bonds and their benchmarks, and walk you through the tools needed to calculate expected returns and yield spreads.
Cracking the Code of Bond's Expected Return
Yield is a key measure when estimating a bond's expected return. There are two essential yield measures to understand: yield to maturity and spot rates. Yield to maturity is the interest rate that makes a bond's cash flows plus accrued interest equal to its current price. This calculation assumes that the bond is held until maturity, and all cash flows can be reinvested at the yield to maturity.
Spot rates are computed by identifying the interest rate that equates the present value of a zero-coupon bond to its price. For coupon-paying bonds, each cash flow must be discounted using the appropriate spot rate to find the price. Spot rates form the building blocks for relative value comparisons for certain types of bonds.
Decoding the Benchmarks for Bonds
Most bonds are priced relative to a benchmark, and the choice of benchmark varies with bond classifications. Common benchmarks include on-the-run U.S. Treasuries, with many bonds priced relative to a specific Treasury bond. For example, a 10-year corporate bond might be priced relative to the on-the-run 10-year Treasury.
In the case of callable or put-able bonds, where the exact maturity is uncertain, they are often priced to a benchmark curve. Benchmark pricing curves are constructed using underlying securities with varying maturities. This process involves interpolating yields between the observable yields due to gaps in maturities.
Tip: An example of a commonly used benchmark curve is the Interpolated Yield Curve, created from the most recently issued U.S. Treasury bonds, notes, and bills.
Understanding Yield Spreads for Bonds
The spread, a bond's yield relative to its benchmark, serves as both a pricing mechanism and a relative value comparison tool. For instance, a corporate bond trading at a spread of 75 basis points above the 10-year Treasury means its yield to maturity is 0.75% higher than that of the on-the-run 10-year Treasury.
There are four primary yield spread calculations to keep in mind: Nominal Yield Spread, Zero-Volatility Spread (Z-spread), Option-Adjusted Spread (OAS), and Discount Margin (DM).
Interesting Fact: If a corporate bond with the same credit rating and duration trades at a spread of 90 basis points, it would be a better buy on a relative value basis!
Getting Familiar with Different Types of Bonds and Their Benchmark Spread Calculations
Different bonds come with different benchmarks and pricing mechanisms:
These usually price at a nominal yield spread to a specific U.S. Treasury. However, if the bond's credit rating deteriorates, it may trade at an actual dollar price.
These are typically priced at a nominal yield spread to a specific on-the-run U.S. Treasury matching its maturity.
Mortgage-Backed Securities (MBS)
These are priced at a nominal yield spread at their weighted average life to the U.S. Treasury Interpolated Yield Curve. However, pricing varies with adjustable-rate MBS and Collateralized Mortgage Obligations (CMOs), which may trade at a Z-spread or nominal yield spread to specific Treasuries.
Asset-Backed Securities (ABS)
These generally trade at a nominal yield spread at their weighted average life to the swap curve.
These often trade at a nominal yield spread to a specific Treasury. Callable agencies may be evaluated using an OAS.
Due to their tax advantages, these bonds frequently trade at an outright yield to maturity or a dollar price. However, their yield as a ratio to a benchmark Treasury yield may serve as a relative value measure.
Collateralized Debt Obligation (CDOs)
CDOs have diverse pricing benchmarks and yield measures. They may use the Eurodollar curve as a benchmark, and floating-rate tranches may use discount margins.
The Bottom Line
While bond market pricing conventions can initially seem complex, understanding the basics can make it both clearer and engaging. Mastering the core concepts of bond pricing - identifying a pricing benchmark, determining a spread, and understanding yield calculations - can equip you with the tools you need to navigate this intricate market with ease and confidence. Remember, each bond type comes with its unique pricing mechanism, so taking the time to learn each one is invaluable.
Yield is the most commonly used measure to estimate a bond's expected return.
Most bonds are priced relative to a benchmark.
The spread serves as both a pricing mechanism and a relative value comparison tool.
Different types of bonds use different benchmark spread calculations.
Understanding the basics of bond pricing can help demystify bond market conventions.
Once you're equipped with these essentials, exploring the bond market becomes not just less intimidating, but a genuinely engaging financial journey. Happy investing!
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